Technology Readiness Level (TRL): TRL4
and to identify early-warning indicators that could help beekeepers limiting colony losses and related economic deficits. BeeConnected combines expertise in various scientific fields, including behavioural ecology, molecular biology, engineering, computer science, and modelling. In close collaboration with beekeepers, the project will carry out a large-scale monitoring of beehives along combined gradients in climate (continental, temperate and Mediterranean) and landscape complexity. The monitoring will combine traditional field observations with automated systems using multiple low-cost sensors to track the bee colony in real time and in three dimensions inside the beehives. Data will be associated with mechanistic models to assess the risk of colony mortality and to identify early-warning indicators. The final goal is double (i) to improve knowledge on the winter ecology of honeybees (the current hidden side of the species with direct interests for people, stakeholders and science) and, (ii) to derivate decision-support tools for beekeepers and farmers (to ensure adequate pollination services) to sustain their professional activities.